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On the roots of the Syrian problem: Part III, influences global and regional geopolitical actors (DIEEEA45-2017)

Among the factors that have given rise to the current situation in Syria are the crisis and discredit of nationalism and the military that maintained it; The historical confrontation between nationalism and Islamism, especially with the Syrian branch of the Muslim brothers, and the influence of global and regional geopolitical actors with interests in the area. We have already dealt with the crisis of nationalism in part I, and in the second, the origin of modern Islam in Syria, its development through the Muslim Brotherhood, and its confrontation with successive nationalist regimes. This third and final part will focus on the influence of the global and regional geopolitical environment on the vicissitudes historically lived in Syria, and how they affect today, including the vision of the self-denominated Islamic state.

•     The division of the Muslim world following the murder of Ali in 661, after the agreement of Siffin, and the ensuing split between Shiites and Sunnis;

•     it belonged to the Ottoman imperial space

•     the fragmentation of that empire after its defeat in the First World War and the Sykes-Picot agreement of 1916,

•     the creation of the state of Israel in Palestine and of the different Arab nation states of little tradition

•     the division the Cold War produced into what it would define as the Rihmland; And the Russian-American competition after the dissolution of the USSR and the theory of the new world order of Bush I;

•     the interest deriving from the energy importance of the Persian Gulf, or the instability remaining after the soft-power experiment that represented the Arabian springs,

Linked to the different geopolitical, geomorphic, and geo-economic interests of regional powers such as Turkey, Egypt, Saudi Arabia or Iran, they form a framework on which tensions arise that have allowed the emergence of another global geopolitical actor: The Islamic state. arise that have allowed the emergence of another global geopolitical actor: The Islamic state.

Author: Emilio Sánchez de Rojas Díaz


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