Search in this website


To facilitate reference, the original IEEE documents have been grouped into 12 " Thematic Areas "

1. "Climate Change".- Climate change is the major environmental and socioeconomic challenge of the 21st century. It poses challenges of far-reaching importance to security, such as shortage of drinking water, major changes in the conditions of food production, greater competition for energy resources and an increase in certain natural disasters such as floods, storms, droughts, forest fires and heat waves. These environmental changes can exacerbate migratory pressure and accordingly heighten tension in areas of transit and destination, and even increase the fragility of some States. It is a key element which can become a threat multiplier. However, it also provides an opportunity to shape a new, more sustainable model of development. (NSS 2013).

2. "Cybersecurity" .-Cyperspace, a new area of relations which has spurred the development of new information and communication technologies, has blurred borders making possible an unprecedented globalisation that provides new opportunities but entails serious risks and threats. Society’s dependence on cyberspace and its easy accessibility make interference in this area increasingly common and cause for concern. Cyberspace is largely a means for the materialisation of other risks and threats. Cyberattacks, whether in the form of cyberterrorism, cybercrimes/cyberoffences, cyberespionage or hacktivism, have become a powerful instrument for attacking individuals and public and private institutions. Factors such as their low cost and minimal risks to the attacker and their easy use, effectiveness and accessibility explain why the phenomenon is spreading. These illegal attacks are perpetrated – and increasingly frequently – by terrorist groups, organised crime networks, companies, States or individuals. (NSS 2013)

3. "Armed Conflicts".- Armed conflicts continue to pose a major threat to security, even though global interdependence has influenced their form and decreased the likelihood of conventional confrontations between States. Most violent conflicts are internal. Examples are failed States, unlawful activities performed by both State and non-State actors, inter-ethnic conflicts and competition for natural resources. Despite the internal nature of these conflicts, their consequences affect the international community and, in some cases, vital and strategic Spanish interests and, accordingly, National Security. (NSS 2013)

4. "Defence and Security Culture".- National Security is a public service which must be subject to a State Policy. By its nature it is a task to which everyone must be committed. To this end, the Government will strive to secure the maximum social and parliamentary support. Citizens’ collaboration and support are essential. This involvement will be possible if a sound security culture is fostered based on prior knowledge, awareness and sensitivity to the importance of security in guaranteeing their freedom, prosperity and, in short, their way of life in accordance with the principles of the social and democratic rule of law. (NSS 2013)

5. "Energy".- Spain is still a vulnerable country with respect to energy. On the one hand, it depends exclusively on other countries for its supply and, on the other, the low rate of gas and electricity interconnections with the rest of Europe increases the threat of supply interruptions. This vulnerability is heightened in the new geostrategic context characterised by the rapid economic growth of large countries, leading to a considerable rise in energy demand. There is growing competition for scant resources. The possibility of this competition being conducted outside the market framework and giving rise to conflicts over the control of energy resources is a risk and a threat to international security and to Spain. Energy is a key factor in economic progress and the correct functioning of society. Energy security depends on different factors: an adequate supply at affordable prices, secure installations and transport networks, and environmental sustainability.

6. "Sociological Studies".- The Spanish Institute for Strategic Studies conducts sociological research studies to determine the degree of interest of the citizens towards issues of peace, security and defence, because we believe that civil society is an essential part of defence and security culture. Nationally, the largest study performed biannually since 1997, with the Centre for Sociological Research (CIS), is called "The National Defence and the Armed Forces". Also in this section you can find surveys published by other national and international public official centres in which the opinion of the citizens on issues related to security and defence.

7. "Intelligence".- The new challenges in the national and international scenery requires information, analyzes, studies and proposals to prevent, avoid and, if needed, effectively deal with any danger, threat or aggression against the independence or territorial integrity of states, security and the legitimate interests of its citizens and the strength of the rule of law and its institutions. In short, the peace and international stability.

8. "Women-Childhood-Gender-Conflict".- Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world; Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind...; Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human right, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women...; Now, therefore, The General Assembly, Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by..., to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. (Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 

9. "Non-Proliferation".- Non-proliferation include a set of actions such as: effective multilateralism and active cooperation in combating the proliferation of weapons of mass des¬truction; the prevention, deterrence, detention and, where possible, elimination of proliferation programmes of particular global concern, as well as to preventing terrorist groups and other non-State agents from gaining access to radioactive materials and sources; mitigation of nuclear, che¬mical and biological risks, impeding terrorists or criminals from gaining access to dangerous substances, and controlling the exportation of dual-use products and technologies related to weapons of mass destruction, to protect the population. (NSS 2013)

10. "Other resources".- The new structure of the IEEE website provides this space for those official resources that are not original from this Institute plus the links to other think tanks, institutions and organizations that we believe provide useful information for understanding the complex environment of peace and security in the world. Consequently, it is a very broad range of topics, which may be from national and international regulations on safety and protection to the different national strategies published, through specific sections dedicated to the main security organizations, which will certainly provide a valuable source of information for researchers and the general public.

11. "Defence and Security".- National Security is subject to a State Policy, which requires the planning and definition of permanent principles and lines of action capable of providing comprehensive responses to current challenges. (ESN 2013) Defense policy aims to protect the whole of Spanish society, its Constitution, the higher values, principles and institutions enshrined therein, the social and democratic rule of law, the full exercise of the rights and freedoms and warranty, independence and territorial integrity of Spain. It also aims to contribute to the preservation of international peace and security, within the framework of the commitments made by the Kingdom of Spain. (LO 5/2005) 

12. "Terrorism".- Terrorism is a direct threat to the life and security of citizens; it aims to undermine our democratic institutions and jeopardises our vital and strategic interests, infrastructures, supplies and critical services. There are elements which make our country the target of international terrorism: its relative closeness to unstable regions like the Sahel, where failed States are conducive to criminal actions and the spread of violent extremism; the possible radicalisation of both first- and second-generation emigrants settled in Spain or in countries belonging to our cultural environment; the insistence of Islamic fundamentalist groups on presenting Spain as part of the imaginary of Islam; and our firm involvement in fighting terrorism inside and outside national territory. (NSS 2013)



© Copyright 2010 Spanish Institute for Strategic Studies