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Afghanistan: two decades in conflict.-José Miguel Calvillo Cisneros

The International Community has been involved in Afghanistan almost two decades. After the signing of a deal between the United States and the Taliban in February 2020, a new and uncertain period to Afghanistan has been opened. Currently, Afghanistan faces different challenges on development, governance, and security.

The reconstruction process in Afghanistan was designed on the logic that improvements in development would increase security and vice versa. However, almost two decades later, we have confirmed that improvement in human development, although it has been minimal, it has not had positive results over security. Therefore, in this new period, the International Community should keep supporting Afghanistan to promote a new peace process.


Document written by José Miguel Calvillo Cisneros. Teacher of International Relations. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

Note: The full text document is only available in spanish. 

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